雅思剑12巧解雅思阅读题

2017-08-31编辑: Jennifer来自: 环球教育原创

很多考生对雅思阅读的困扰在于,文章很长,读不懂,时间不够,其实这也是出题人的用意所在——雅思阅读文章之所以长,是因其涉及很多专业词汇,一部分为干扰性,即考验考生根据题目进行信息聚焦而排除干扰信息的能力;另一部分,为理解性,即考验考生结合语境综合理解文本信息。

而本文环球教育袁宇坤老师将主要集中于如何利用剑桥雅思12真题中的上下文语境去解题。简单来说,就是如何利用文中隐藏的“解释”信号帮助我们有效率的解题,如玩游戏取得锦囊通关。

首先,笔者所理解/或定义的“解释”信号为作者为让读者理解一些生僻词汇所设置的语言提示,常见的有指代、因果、转折,本文仅探讨这三种。

1.指代关系

想了解指代关系,首先要理解一个前提,英文中前后句需体现逻辑一致性,而逻辑一致性的一个体现在于:指代。

例如,我在街上看到一个金色头发的男人,那个人竟然在随地大小便。注意划横线的那个人指代的是上一句的一个金色头发的男人,这样上下句通过指代关系就有了一定的逻辑一致。

核心总结(敲黑板!):句中出现指代信号词,指代的东西一定在前文有出现过。

常见可表指代功能的词有:the(可表特指)、this/that、these/those、such、it/they/them和定语从句中常用的which/that等。(注意:此处仅列出笔者认为较常用的)

例题:C12-Test 5-Passage 1-Cork-Question 6-13

题型:complete the notes below

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer

Comparison of aluminium screw caps and cork bottle stoppers

Advantages of aluminium screw caps

are 7_____________ to produce

are 8_____________ to use

Advantages of cork bottle stoppers

suit the 9_____________of quality products

cork forests aid 12_____________

----------审----------题---------分----------割----------线-----------

原文如下:引用部分自倒数第二段和最后一段

The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently, to aluminium screw caps. These substitutes are cheaper to manufacture and, in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user.

The classic cork stopper does have several advantages, however. Firstly, its traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods with which it has long been associated. Secondly-and more importantly-the cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty. Moreover, cork forests are a resource which support local biodiversity and prevent desertification in the regions where they are planted.

分析:(先7&8后9&12)

先回顾一下老师上课教授的填空题解题步骤:定位-空格前后搭配-空格词性-字数。

从第7题开始,定位词aluminium screw caps又长又怪,相信定位不难,然后是前后搭配are____ to produce,很大可能是填一个形容词adj,同理第8题也是adj啦,相信童鞋们都能触类旁通。

通过定位原文,我们发现第一小段第二行出现了定位词(见标黑横线),而第二句句首出现的these substitutes直接代指前文提及的aluminium screw caps,然后根据manufacture=produce的替换,锁定Q8的答案为cheaper。

而第9题第三行结尾处的the user替换了to use。

所以Q9的答案为convenient (别问老师为什么不能填more convenient ← ←)

7&8原文

The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently,to aluminium screw caps./These substitutes are cheaper to manufacture and,in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user.

第9题,定位词cork bottle stoppers,suit意思为符合/吻合,后置位为quality products。第12题,定位词cork forests,aid理解为有助于xxx,(别想错成那个aids哦)。

第一行出现第9题定位词cork stopper,说其有几个优势,那么下文就会列举其优势。

第一个优势,作者用的词是its,指代什么呢?当然是前文所提及的cork stopper,指它的image,in keeping with替换了suit,而第二行的that才真正考验考生的语法功力,这指代的是前面的image,因为比较的对象需一致(xx的image与xx的image比)。

所以Q9答案填的是 image。第12题,第四行出现定位词cork forests,并给其下定义为一种资源,后面的which指代这种资源即cork forests,support替换为aid,故Q12答案为biodiversity。

9&12原文

The classic cork stopper does have several advantages,however. Firstly,its traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods/with which/ it has long been associated.Secondly-and more importantly-the cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty.Moreover,cork forests are a resource which support local biodiversity and prevent desertification in the regions where they are planted.

触类旁通:

Test 5-Passage 2-collecting as a hobby

Q14-21 complete the sentence below

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage

18.Collecting sometimes involves a life-long_______ for a special item

原文:

Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless

Tips:注意题目空格后面的是a special item

答案:hunt/desire

解析:原文第三行…spend their whole lives in a hunt for this中的this指前文提及的item,spend their whole lives替换了life-long,因此答案为hunt,又因该段段首中心句说明了另一动机是发现特别之物的desire,故也可填desire。

指代-变体1:术语类

指代关系的考察除了上述通过指代词,还往往会考术语,即考察考生通过识别文章的解释性信号去了解专业术语的意思。那么,我们首先需要了解作者会如何提出术语,其次如何解释术语。

常见提出术语方式:

语言提示:refer to as/known as/coin the term

符号提示:引号

常见的解释术语方式:

破折号——

冒号:

括号()

用于同位语中的逗号,

例题:C12-Test 7-Passage 3-music and the emotions

Questions 27-31 complete the summary

No more than two words

The Montreal study-截取第二段

Researchers also observed that the neurons in the area of the brain called 29_________ were particularly active just before the participants' favourite moments in the music---period known as the 30 __________ . Activity in this part of brain is associated with the expectation of reward stimuli such as 31 _________.

审题关键词示例参考:

Researchers also observed that the neurons in the area of the brain called 29_________ were particularly active just before the participants' favourite moments in the music---period known as the 30 __________ . Activity in this part of brain is associated with the expectation of reward stimuli such as 31 _________.

碎碎念解析:

29.大脑的某部位名称、里面有neurons

30.某个period的名称,在favourite moments in music前、neurons变得active的period

31.某种reward stimuli的名字,因为空格前面为such as

原文:

What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate---a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other “reward stimuli”---were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants' favourite moments in the music. The researchers call this the “anticipatory phase” and argue that the purpose of this activity is to help us predict the arrival of our favourite part.

解析:

What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons /in the caudate/---a region of the brain /involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other “reward stimuli”---were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants' favourite moments in the music. The researchers call this the “anticipatory phase” and argue that the purpose of this activity is to help us predict the arrival of our favourite part.

29题先出现定位词neurons,句子比较长我们把中间的成分去掉简化成the dopamine neurons were at their most active around 15 seconds before……可得neurons were active。

再结合neurons in the caudate,而caudate破折号后解释其为 a region of the brain。综上所得,Q29 caudate,所用的技巧为破折号表解析。

31题结合food and other “reward stimuli”中的other,说明food 属于某种reward stimuli可得答案为Q30 food

30题结合The researchers call this the “anticipatory phase”…作者用引号引出专业术语,并用代词指代前一句所描述的状态,与题目吻合,因此Q30 anticipatory phase。

指代-变体2:从属类

从属类一般所用表达方式为such as/other/…of…等,表达某物属于某类,或是另一物的一部分。例如上述所列出的31题food and other “reward stimuli”,other一词说明food也是一种reward stimuli。

题目:C11-Test3-Passage 1-The story of silk

Questions 1-9

Complete the sentences below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Silk reaches rest of world

●Silk production spreads across Middle East and Europe

●20th century: 9.and other manmade fibres cause decline in silk production

原文:

The nineteenth century and industrialisation saw the downfall of the European silk industry. Cheaper Japanese silk, trade in which was greatly facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, was one of the many factors driving the trend. Then in the twentieth century, new manmade fibres, such as nylon, started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products, such as stockings and parachutes. The two world wars, which interrupted the supply of raw material from Japan, also stifled the European silk industry. After the Second World War,Japan's silk production was restored, with improved production and quality of raw silk. Japan was to remain the world's biggest producer of raw silk, and practically the only major exporter of raw silk, until the 1970s.

答案:nylon(而不是wars)

解析:这题目不难定位,但很多同学却填错wars,因为他们看到了原文第六行“The two world wars, which interrupted 打断the supply of raw material from Japan, also stifled抑制 the European silk industry”。

但是题目说的是____ and other mammade fibres,说明空格内应该填某种mammade fibres,所以应根据第四行new manmade fibres such as nylons作答,得出答案为nylons。

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