托福写作开头段如何写 助你旗开得胜

2017-03-02编辑: Eileen来自: 环球教育

  “A good beginning is half done”托福写作开头段方法。

  要想在托福写作中获得比较理想的成绩,当然不能忘记好好写一个作文开头,毕竟一个好的开头不仅能够让考生快速进入考试状态也能够获得比较好的成绩起点。那么,如何才能算是一个好的开头呢?

  新托福官方指南中指出,一个好的开头段通常①能够引起读者兴趣②告诉读者文章总的话题③告诉读者文章的观点。从这个角度出发,不难发现写作开头段其实可以用一些惯例或者所谓模板写出来。同时,评分标准也非常明确地表示高分总共要有三要素:框架,内容还有语言。从这个角度着眼,共有四种方法可供参考:

  1.最经典的开头段写法:介绍背景+复述题目+标明观点。

  例如:Do you agree or disagree with the statement: People often buy products not because they really need them but because other people have them.(2014.11.02)

  开头段:In recent decades, international trades and improving living standards have largely contributed to the large scale of purchase of products. The reason behind this commercial behavior either comes from individual’s needs for them or from envy of those who have already possessed them. From my perspective, the essential motive behind the scene would be for individual purposes.

  仔细分析下这个开头段,我们可以发现第一句话就是对人们购买东西的一个背景阐述:国际贸易和生活水平的提高使得越来越多的人购买东西。第二句则是对于这个现象产生的原因进行分析:这个现象是由于个人需要还是虚荣心。而这句话其实就是对于题目中People often buy products not because they really need them but because other people have them转述。而第三句话就是个人观点的陈述,表明个人需求才是真正造成该现象的原因。这样的开头段就是很好地遵循了背景介绍+改述题目+自己观点这一原则,条理清晰,一目了然。这样的写作框架非常明确,并且容易下手,内容也随之固定下来:最近一段时间有一个现象+该现象引起讨论+我个人观点;

  不过,如果语言只局限在 in modern society, more and more people do sth. 可不是一件好事;现在我们再来看一下如何改进句子能够获得较高的语言分数?

  首先,在表明最近一段时间有一个现象时推荐使用名词性从句,首推主语从句:

  ①It is widely known/ seen/ accepted that S+V+O

  ②It is not uncommon that S+V+O

  ③It is often the case that S+V+O

  ④It is not rare to see that S+V+O

  当然也可以用同位语表达现象:

  ①Recent decades have witnessed an increasing tendency that S+V+O

  ②There is a widespread phenomenon that S+V+O

  第二句表示该现象引起讨论,也可以用从句或者因果关系表示:

  ①Such situation triggers heated debate whether S+should do +O or not.

  ②The reasons behind this attributes to +讨论内容

  ③This can be explained by multiple factors.

  第三句自己观点,则推荐用简单句与插入语,如;

  ①From my point of view, the latter is more appreciated due to R1, R2 and R3.

  ②For me, S+V+O

  从上面的句子来看,是不是瞬间容易入手了呢? 不过,这样的开头虽然简单容易得分,但是离官方所提到的“引起他人兴趣”还是有一定的差距的。 那么,接下来就看看还有其他更好的方法么?

  2.增加文章复杂度:复述原题+指出其复杂性+表明自己的立场

  例如:Do you agree or disagree with the statement: Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? (2014.11.03)

  开头段:The issue of whether to raze an old, historic building to make way for progress is a complex one, since it involves a conflict between our interest in preserving our culture, tradition, and history and a legitimate need to create practical facilities that serve current utilitarian purposes. In my view, the final judgment should depend on a case-by-case analysis of two key factors.

  这类型开头从结构上来说与第一种背景法其实颇为相似,重点在于要挖掘话题内容的根本原因在,在内容和语言再挖深一步就可以了。

  推荐语言:

  ①The topic/ issue of whether S +V +O as/since/ in that it originates from/ comes from sth.

  ②The problem of sth. is no longer restricted within sth. but more severe in the aspect of sth.

  3.提提反面更健康:对立面复述原题+适当让步+表明自己的立场

  例如: Do you agree or disagree with he following statement: Some people think that changing jobs periodically is good. What is your opinion?(2011.07.19)

  开头段:A majority of individuals, especially those youth, change their jobs frequently.  Admittedly,job satisfaction, to some extent, may bring happiness as well as sense of achievement to the individuals.It fails to guarantee the material gains which ensure the basic life requirement such as accommodation,food and even medical care. As a result, I stand by the point that people should not change their jobs periodically.

  这样的开头不仅从结构上显得更完整,从内容上则显得更饱满,照顾到了对立面的观点,从思维连贯性上也更充分了。从语言的角度上,从句的运用也增加了语法多样性和复杂度。

  当然这样的让步不仅仅局限在第二句的表达上,在表达作者观点的时候,也可以通过让步状语从句的句式来增加信息的多样性和复杂度。

  如:以下题为例:

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. (2014.8.28)

  开头段:

  Universities usually require students, which is often than not the case,to give a comprehensive evaluation based on different aspects such as sense of humor, clarity, carefulness, and patience. In light of this, not only teaching quality but also methods can be improved through the evaluation as well as feedback from those students.Although certain potential drawbacks might be inherent in such an approach, it is fair enough for students to assess their teachers’ teaching performance according to the following reasons and examples.

  这个开头很简洁很清晰,第一句话叙述现在许多学校的做法,第二句话介绍这样做的好处,最后开头主题句采用让步从句的写法,首先承认学生评价老师表现存在一定的潜在坏处,但是这样做尤其合理性,观点例证在下文进行陈述。通过这样一个开头表明了文章的话题,同时表明了文章的观点,而且暗示了文章让步转折的结构,可以说是一个比较值得推荐的开头。

  从语言上来说,让步信息更多地涉及到了状语从句,也就是让步状语从句或者比较状语;如

  ①Although such methods may bring about certain disadvantages/advantages, the benefits/ drawbacks should be highly addressed.

  ②Compared with the / In comparison to the benefits it brings about, more drawbacks can be found in such activity.

  ③Admittedly/ We have to admit that S+V+O. However, this fails yo ensure/ guarantee/ promise +O.

  4.找个靠山:①名人名言法 ②故事引用法 ③新闻法

  开头段:As a saying goes, “God helps those help themselves”, which is true in most cases. But as far as the large numbers of laid-off workers caused by the technological and market changes are concerned, I believe the government and the business certainly have an unshakable responsibility to take.

  此类方法不仅比较新颖从语法的角度上复杂度也是很充分。不过还存在固有的缺点,就是需要背诵大量的名人名言作为准备,那么其实可以在备考时准备一些常见话题的相关名人名言或者新闻内容用引出话题。

  例如:

  Do not do unto others that which you would not have them do unto you.

  --------Confucius

  Never, never,never give up.

  ---------Franklin D.Roosevelt

  Knowledge is power.

  -----Francis Bacon

  其实,托福写作开头主要锻炼能力:引出话题能力,复述原文的能力,清晰表达观点能力。引出话题可以让读者不会感到突兀,复述原文表明自己语言运用改写原句的能力,清晰表明自己观点给文章定下一个基调,让读者能够从开头就了解到作者的观点。从语法角度来说,引出话题竟可能使用名词性从句,句子长度控制在20-25单词左右。 复述原文的话可以使用名词性从句或者定语从句。而个人观点则可以使用状语从句加上名词性从句,句子可以稍微长一些,大约在30-35单词的样子。

  相关推荐:

  托福写作如何写出高分作文

  托福写作如何举例论证

  托福写作结尾该如何写?

  托福写作中不要忽视这些错误


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